- The most common cause of diarrhea among infants and young children is mainly due to rotavirus infection.
- Nearly every child in the world is infected with rotavirus at least once by the age of five.1
- The virus is transmitted by faecal-oral route and occurs mainly in the winter season.
- The period of illness is an acute symptom often starts with vomiting followed by four to eight days of profuse diarrhea.2
- Dehydration is more common than those caused by bacterial pathogens.
- WHO recommended two vaccines against Rotavirus infection for global use and are safe and effective in children.3
- This study was carried out to fine out the retrospective analysis of children with acute gastroenteritis who were admitted to Parami General Hospital during sixmonth period. (From October 2016 to March 2016)
- To determine the epidemiological pattern of admitted children with rotavirus gastroenteritis during six month duration
- To find out the presenting symptoms and severity of disease
- To analyze the outcome of admitted cases
- Retrospective analysis of children with gastroenteritis cases from register, patients’ charts and electronic hospital records
- Cases were diagnosed by rapid immunochromatographic tests of stool samples
From October to March 2016
Study age group
Children less than 12 years
- Rota virus gastroenteritis was found in 37% of total gastroenteritis cases who admitted to Parami General Hospital within six months (325 cases among total of 878)
- Among these patients, 185 were boys and 140 were girls
- The most common age group was 1-2 year age group (45.2% of total cases). The second common age group was infants who under one year (35.7%)
- Vomiting, fever and dehydration were most common presenting symptoms (94.3%, 84% and 68.3% respectively).
- About half of the children had coryzal symptoms and secondary lactose intolerance found to have 65.4% of total investigated cases.
- Regarding grading of dehydration, 66.1% of children had some dehydration and 2.2% had severe dehydration.
- Nearly 90% of children needed IV fluid therapy and duration was mostly between 12-30 hours.
- Serum electrolyte measured in 22.5% of children and out of which 32.8% of them had electrolyte abnormalities.
- Most of the children were discharged form hospital within 72 hours after admission. However some children needed to stay up to seven days for other reasons such as comorbidity, complications , parental concern and come from district areas.
- Only 3.4% of children received vaccination
Discussion and conclusion
- Diarrhoea remains a major health problem of children
- Among diarrhoea cases rotavirus gastroenteritis is common cause
- The overall findings of this study showed that rotavirus gastroenteritis was prevalent in children under two year with male more susceptible to be infected than females .
- Vomiting, fever and dehydration were common presenting symptoms
- Secondary lactose intolerance found in 65.4% of investigated cases and electrolyte imbalance was not much common as only few cases had electrolytes abnormalities among investigated cases.
- Duration IV fluid requirement was mainly from 12 to 30 hours and most children were discharged from hospital after 48 hours of treatment.
- Rota virus vaccination was found only in minority of cases due to lack of awareness of parents, cost and availability of vaccine.
- It is recommended that rotavirus vaccine should be introduced in National Immunization Program.
- Chin J: Control of Communicable Disease Manual. Wash. DC: American Public Health Association. J ClinMicrobiol 2000,125(17):910-7.
- Bass CW, Dorsey KN: Rotavirus and other agents of viral gastroenteritis. In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.Edited by: Richard E and Behrman F. Raven Press, Philadelphia; 2004:107-110.
- Introduction of rotavirus vaccines: Information for Policy Makers, Programme Managers, and HealthWorkers, WHO, Geneva, July 31, 2013:5
|Fig(1) Age distribution
|Fig (2) Presenting symptoms
|Fig(3)Degree of dehydration
|Fig (4)Duration of fluid requirement
|Fig(5)Duration of hospital stay
|Fig (6)Vaccination status among cases