Rota virus gastroenteritis cases admitted to Parami General Hospital


Introduction

  • The most common cause of diarrhea among infants and young children is mainly due to rotavirus infection.
  • Nearly every child in the world is infected with rotavirus at least once by the age of five.1
  • The virus is transmitted by faecal-oral route and occurs mainly in the winter season.

  • The period of illness is an acute symptom often starts with vomiting followed by four to eight days of profuse diarrhea.2
  • Dehydration is more common than those caused by bacterial pathogens.
  • WHO recommended two vaccines against Rotavirus infection  for global use and are safe and effective in children.3
  • This study was carried out to fine out the retrospective analysis of children with acute  gastroenteritis  who  were  admitted  to  Parami  General  Hospital  during  sixmonth period. (From October 2016 to March 2016)

Objectives

  1. To  determine  the  epidemiological  pattern  of  admitted  children  with  rotavirus gastroenteritis during six month duration
  2. To find out the presenting symptoms and severity of disease
  3. To analyze the outcome of admitted cases

Research Methodology

  1. Retrospective analysis of children with gastroenteritis cases from register, patients’ charts and electronic hospital records
  2. Cases were diagnosed by rapid immunochromatographic tests of stool samples

Study Period

From October to March 2016

Study age group

Children less than 12 years

Results

  • Rota  virus  gastroenteritis  was  found  in  37%  of  total  gastroenteritis  cases  who admitted to Parami General Hospital within six months  (325  cases among  total of 878)
  • Among  these patients, 185 were boys and 140 were girls
  • The most common age group was 1-2 year age group (45.2% of total cases). The second common age group was infants who under one year (35.7%)
  • Vomiting, fever and dehydration were most common presenting symptoms (94.3%, 84% and 68.3% respectively).
  • About half of the children had coryzal symptoms and secondary lactose intolerance found to have 65.4% of total investigated cases.
  • Regarding grading of dehydration, 66.1% of children had some dehydration and 2.2% had severe dehydration.
  • Nearly 90% of children needed IV fluid  therapy and duration was mostly between 12-30 hours.
  • Serum electrolyte measured in 22.5% of children and out of which 32.8% of them had electrolyte abnormalities.
  • Most of the children were discharged form hospital within 72 hours after admission. However some children needed to stay up to seven days for other reasons such as comorbidity, complications , parental concern and come from district areas.
  • Only 3.4% of children  received vaccination

Discussion and conclusion

  • Diarrhoea remains a major health problem of children
  • Among diarrhoea cases rotavirus gastroenteritis is common cause
  • The overall       findings of this study showed that rotavirus gastroenteritis was prevalent  in  children  under  two  year  with  male  more  susceptible  to  be infected than females .
  • Vomiting, fever and dehydration were common presenting symptoms
  • Secondary  lactose  intolerance  found  in  65.4%  of  investigated  cases  and electrolyte  imbalance  was   not   much   common  as   only   few   cases   had electrolytes abnormalities among investigated cases.
  • Duration  IV  fluid  requirement  was  mainly  from  12  to  30  hours  and  most children were discharged from hospital after 48 hours of treatment.
  • Rota virus vaccination was found only in minority of cases due to lack of awareness of parents, cost and availability of vaccine.
  • It is recommended that rotavirus vaccine should be introduced in National Immunization Program.

References

  1. Chin J: Control of Communicable Disease Manual. Wash. DC: American Public Health Association. J ClinMicrobiol 2000,125(17):910-7.
  2. Bass CW, Dorsey KN: Rotavirus and other agents of viral gastroenteritis. In Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.Edited by: Richard E and Behrman F. Raven Press, Philadelphia; 2004:107-110.
  3. Introduction  of rotavirus  vaccines:  Information  for Policy  Makers,  Programme  Managers,  and HealthWorkers, WHO, Geneva, July 31, 2013:5
Fig(1) Age distribution
Fig (2) Presenting symptoms
Fig(3)Degree of dehydration
Fig (4)Duration of fluid requirement
Fig(5)Duration of hospital stay
Fig (6)Vaccination status among cases

General Enquiries

  • 95-1-657227
  • No.(60)(G-1),New Parami Road,Mayangone Township,Yangon,Myanmar.
  • info@Paramihospital.com

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