Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery (ENT) is also known as otorhinolaryngology, Head and neck surgery.
This area of medicine is concerned with disorders of the ear, nose and throat.
ENT Surgeons or otorhinolaryngolist are specialist doctors who deal with medical and surgical treatment of conditions of the ears, nose and throat structures of the head and neck.
ENT services provided at Parami General Hospital include-
Daily outpatient clinics where booked patients are seen by the doctor
Procedures / Treatments
1. Hearing Loss
Hearing loss can be divided into two types
Conductive hearing loss (caused by some sort of mechanical problem in the external or middle ear) or
Sensorineural hearing loss (caused by disorders of the inner ear, hearing nerve or associated brain structures).
2. Otitis media
This is inflammation or infection of your middle ear (the space behind your ear drum) and is often associated with a built up of fluid in your middle ear.
The Eustachian tube connect the middle ear to nose and allows air to enter the middle ear, thus making middle pressure the same as air pressure outside the head.
Acute Otitis media
This is usually caused by temporary malfunction of the Eustachian tube due to allergies, infections or trauma. Acute otitis media results in an infection in the middle ear causing pain, fever and red bulging eardrum. The treatment may be antibiotics if it is suspected to be a bacterial rather than viral infection, or if there are repeated episodes surgical insertion of grommets into the eardrum may be required. Grommets are tiny ventilation tubes that allow normal airflow into the drainage out of the middle ear until the Eustachian tube begin to work normally.
Otitis media with effusion
Like acute otitis media, glue ear is usually the results of a temporary malfunction of the Eustachian tube and may either follow an episode of acute otitis media or occur on its own. Fluid is present in the middle ear but the ear is not usually painful. The ear drum is not real or bulging and there is no fever. Glue ear may lead to hearing loss, which can result in speech delay and balance problem. Treatment options includes a prolonged course of antibiotics, grommet insertion, or treatment with decongestants, antihistamine etc.
Chronic Otitis Media
If the Eustachian tube is blocked repeatedly over a period of several years, there may be changes to the tissue of the middle ear such as deformity or perforation of the eardrum and damage to the bones of the ears. These changes may result in hearing problems, balance problems, and persistent ears discharge which may cause life threatening .If such long term damage has occurred an operation called tympanomastoidectony may be required. This involves making an incision (cut) behind or around the upper part of the ear drilling the mastoid bone and removing and possibly repairing damage tissue.
3. Otology (Ear) tests
Audiometry is the electronic testing of hearing ability. You will sit in a special room wearing earphones and be asked to respond when u hear a noise through the earphones. This test can measure your hearing levels as well as other aspects of hearing.
4. Meniere’s disease
Meniere’s disease is a disorder in which there is abnormality in the fluid of the inner ear resulting in increased pressure on the ear.
When there is growth of the bone at the base of the tiny bones in the middle ear called the Stapes, it leads the condition called otosclerosis.
Rhinitis is the inflammation of the lining of the nose (nasal mucosa).
In the facial bone surrounding your nose there are four pairs of hollow air spaces known as sinus or sinus cavities. These sinuses all open into your nose, allowing air to move into and out of the sinus and mucous to drain into the nose and the back of your throat. If the passage between the nose and the sinus becomes swollen and blocked, then air and mucous can become trapped in the sinus cavity causing inflammation of the sinus membrane or lining. This is known as sinusitis.
Voice difficulties can be experienced in a number of ways including hoarseness loss of voice or reduced volume, strain / pain in the throat or voice box when talking, changes in the pitch of the voice (either higher or lower than usual) or running out of breath when talking.
9. Swallowing Disorders (Dysphasia)
If you find it difficult to pass food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach, you may have a swallowing disorder or dysphasia.
Your tonsils are the oval- shaped lumps of tissue that lie on both sides of the back of the throat. Sometimes tonsil can become inflamed (red and swollen with white patches on them) as the results of bacteria or viral infection.
What is thyroidectomy? Thyroidectomy is an operation in which one or both lobes of the thyroid gland are removed. The most common indication for thyroidectomy include a large mass in the thyroid gland, difficulties with breathing related to the thyroid mass, difficulties with swallowing , goiter, suspected or proven cancer of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroidism (over production of thyroid hormone). The need for thyroidectomy is based on your history, the results of a physical examination and tests. The most common test to determine whether a thyroidectomy is necessary includes a fine needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid scan, ultrasound, X-ray and / or CT scan, and the assessment of thyroid hormone levels. The procedure is usually done under general cancer thesis. The extent of surgery (removal of one or both lobes) may sometimes determine in the course of surgery after microscopic examination of a tissue removed during the surgery.
12. Acoustic Neuroma
This is a slow growing benign (non cancerous) over growth of tissue on the nerves that effect your hearing and balance.